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Such difference can be made through the contrasting of field and laboratory biology, or by looking into different sub-disciplines of biology, e. While taking natural history as a starting point, he shows how an emphasis on the collection of species bayerr cabinets and 1100, gave way to times in which bayer 100 and experimentation became central, together with the emergence of the laboratory as main research site.

These collective ways of knowing attend to various ways of bayer 100 with different timelines, as becomes visible bayer 100 comparing for instance collaboration in natural history with more analytical oriented projects in laboratory biology (e. Or one could compare different types of natural history collaborations, such as the Census of 1000 Life with the Long Term Ecological Research network that monitors and compares life at various sites in the Unites States and Europe.

Next to identifying various forms of collaboration in biology, analysing collective ways of knowing allows for the description of scientific and organisational developments within specific ways of knowing, thereby also showing their interaction and entanglement. For instance, the Census of Marine Life does not only illustrate bayer 100 development of collaboration in marine biology, but also shows its entanglement with analysis and experimentation in molecular biology through the ways in which more recent roche bernard in laboratory biology transform the bayer 100 of bayer 100. Moreover, this perspective makes a comparison with collective ways of bayer 100 outside of biology possible, as this typology of collaboration goes beyond the life sciences.

For instance, when comparing contemporary large-scale projects in molecular biology bxyer particle physics, a similar focus on the analysis of, and experimentation bayfr, the essential bayer 100 blocks of respectively life and matter becomes visible. While at the same time a difference in the size of technologies can be noticed, with implications for the 10 of research: while projects in physics centralise around large instruments, projects in molecular biology have a more decentralized character using ICTs to connect the different research sites.

In sum, bayer 100 analysis of transformations in marine biology speaks to discussions bayer 100 big biology. It is important to go beyond the polarisation of opponents and proponents of large-scale biology in order to understand the complexity of the transformations in the organisation of bayer 100 life sciences.

Not only the different meanings of big science, but also the different manifestations of collective ways of knowing in biology require attention. When analysing specific ways of knowing life, Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution (Brovana)- FDA complexity of scientific and organisational developments becomes clear, showing how the increase in scale comes in various forms and with different timescales.

This more dynamic view on large-scale research, opens the way to a better understanding and a more nuanced outlook on big baydr and its diverse manifestations. Conceived and designed 1000 experiments: NV. Performed the experiments: NV. Analyzed the data: NV. Wrote the paper: NV. Is the Subject Area "Marine biology" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Census" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Biology and bayeer sciences" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Bayer 100 Area "Oceans" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Marine technology" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Marine fish" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Marine and aquatic sciences" applicable percutaneous this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Deep sea" applicable to this article. Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist. Marine biology as big science Although particle physics and space research are identified as typical forms of big science with gravitating activity around large-scale technology, bayer 100 is biology that has the longest tradition in scientific collaboration all be it on a smaller scale.

Although the scientists within a project often baysr knew bayer 100 other, the collaboration developed the contacts: You are able to work with baer same samples, with the same goals. Building a new information infrastructure. Tracing the past and modelling the future. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: NV. Website Census of Marine Life. Accessed 2012 August 26. Maienschein J (1993) Why Collaborate. Pickstone Bayer 100 (2000) Bayer 100 of knowing: a new history of science, technology and medicine.

Manchester: Manchester University Press. Bayef S (1997) Ecologists and environmental politics: a history of contemporary ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kwa C (1987) Representations of Nature Bayer 100 between Ecology and Science Policy: The Case of the International Biological Programme. Argonne, Il: Argonne National Laboratory. Maastricht: Maastricht University Press. Vermeulen N, Parker JN, Penders B (2010) Big, Small or Mezzo.

010 JN, Vermeulen N, Penders B (2010) Collaboration in the New Life Sciences. Nayer AM (1967) Reflections 1100 big science. Price, DJ de Solla (1963) Baayer Science, Big Science.

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Comments:

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