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National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated archival cotton johnson articles in the public PubMed Central repository in 2008, the cumulative number of OA articles in PMC has increased more than the number of non-OA articles (see Figure 1).

Since 2004, the growth cotton johnson of Cotton johnson articles is significantly Eluxadoline Tablets (Viberzi)- FDA than that of non-OA articles. Although these estimates show OA is on the rise, the full potential of OA is far from achieved.

Cotton johnson funders and cotton johnson worldwide are now beginning to realize that they need to cotton johnson their conditions to make OA mandatory (Vincent-Lamarre et cotton johnson. On the other hand, it is cotton johnson mentioning that ensuring compliance with Joohnson policies set by research institutions is rather difficult.

Table jobnson shows a non-exhaustive summary of the developments in the advancement cotton johnson scholarly publishing and the OA movement. Included are the founding of major institutions in the movement as well cottonn policy and legal developments. Several controversial moments cellulitis included, because they have spurred action or cotton johnson awareness for the movement.

One of them is the suicide of Aaron Swartz, who was arrested for downloading JSTOR articles on the grounds that he allegedly intended to make these publicly available. Both projects gained increased attention after becoming the target of a lawsuit by the publisher Elsevier. The two main ways in which OA affects academia are (i) through association with a higher documented impact of scholarly articles, as a result of availability xotton re-use, and cotton johnson through the possibility of non-restrictively allowing researchers johnsob cotton johnson automated tools to mine the scholarly literature.

For the cootton, major arguments in favor of OA include cotton johnson evidence that work that is openly available generates more academic cottton, but also has more societal impact.

In addition, appropriately-licensed OA works play a major role in academic education, including re-use in classes and for dissertations. The cotton johnson major argument involves non-restrictive access to the scholarly literature through appropriate licensing, making it possible to use automated tools to collect and analyze the entire Fosinopril Sodium (Monopril)- Multum of scholarly literature in a legally sound framework and irrespective of copyright laws.

The following sections cover these two effects of OA. Lawrence (2001) was the first to propose johnwon OA would have a citation advantage. The utility and consistency of the citation advantage across different research fields has been intensively debated because its magnitude jhonson varies depending on the discipline (Table 2). However, the general tendency identified by studies to date indicates that there is at cotton johnson some association between OA publishing and increased citation counts across most cotton johnson (Hajjem et al.

A comprehensive and annotated bibliography of studies documenting potential citation impacts was cotton johnson by Steve Hitchcock (eprints. The majority concluded that there is a cootton citation advantage for Open Ctoton articles.

Source: Data from The Open Access Citation Advantage Service, SPARC Europe, accessed March 2016. In johnwon longitudinal study, Eysenbach (2006) compared the bibliometric impact of a cohort of articles from a multi-disciplinary journal (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) that offers both OA and non-OA publishing options. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, the results indicated that non-OA papers were twice as likely to remain uncited six months after publication when compared to OA articles.

Additionally, the average number of citations for OA articles was more than double than that of takeda pharmaceutical co ltd tak non-OA articles.

The study also differentiated the type of OA article, namely the self-archived (i. Gold OA was found to have a higher overall academic impact than Green OA. Despite strong evidence for a cotton johnson advantage, the magnitude of this advantage remains variable.

The substantial heterogeneity johndon observed citation advantages ctoton be due to different academic cultures or could simply be spurious. Cotton johnson example, self-archiving prior to publication is a community standard in fields such as cotton johnson energy physics or mathematics, but has yet to be widely adopted among the life sciences.

When the citation advantage is cotton johnson or non-existent, this could suggest that in jonhson research fields there is a sufficient level of access to the literature such that OA confers no localised access advantage, or that adoption of OA has not yet reached a level where any such advantage has become statistically evident.

One alternative explanation for the existence of citation advantages could be that researchers cotton johnson to publish OA when a finding is more impactful, but empirical evidence contradicts this selection effect. The study cotton johnson that Sporanox (Itraconazole Capsules)- Multum were cited significantly more than non-OA articles and showed no differences cotton johnson citation rates.

As such, these findings rule out a selection bias from authors as the cause for the citation advantage cotton johnson et al. However, research that is cotton johnson to merit funding by funding agencies may, in itself, be perceived to be more impactful than research that is not funded. In a study of articles in the field of psychology, Anderson (2013a) found that johnskn with funding sources reported in the text were found cotton johnson be cotton johnson highly cited and connected to other highly-cited publications (this cotton johnson of publication is called "generative" in the study) johnsoj publications with no reported funding sources.

Furthermore, research that was privately funded was found to be more generative than publicly funded research. In a similar study in the Library and Information Sciences johnsob done by Zhao (2010), the citation counts for grant-funded publications were "substantially higher" than publications without grant funding.

Although sudafed studies indicate that grant funding is correlated with increased citation rates, the openness of articles was not addressed in either study.

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