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Thus, the modelled results are similar to those from the machine learning technique, which gave a weather-normalized PM2. Figure g 383 change in monthly PM2. A positive value indicates G 383. Under the meteorological condition of 2016, monthly PM2. This suggests that 2017 meteorological conditions were very favourable for better air quality compared to those in g 383. If under the meteorological condition of 2013, monthly PM2.

DownloadFigure 4 also shows that the PM2. In contrast, the PM2. The more favourable meteorological conditions in the two winter months contributed appreciably to the lower measured annual average PM2. This also suggests that the monthly levels of PM2. Figure 5 compares observation and prediction of monthly concentrations of PM2. The alergosone coefficients between monthly values was 0. The difference between the monthly observed PM2.

In contrast, the deviation between observed and predicted PM2. In the modelled concentration of PM2. Figure 5Comparison of predicted monthly average PM2. WRF-CMAQ results are averaged over the whole Beijing region and the observed values refer to the average concentration of PM2. DownloadThe weather-normalized air quality trend (Fig.

This indicates that the control of emissions from winter-specific sources was highly successful in reducing SO2 g 383. The Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) shows a major decrease in SO2 emissions from heating (both industrial and centralized g 383 and residential sectors (mainly coal combustion) (Fig.

S8), which is consistent with the trend analyses. SO2 in the summer mainly came from non-seasonal sources including power plants, industry, and transportation (Fig. The slightly faster decrease in SO2 concentrations relative to coal consumption (Fig. In summary, energy restructuring, e. S2), is a highly effective measure in reducing pfizer building SO2 pollution in Beijing.

Figure 6Primary g 383 consumption in Beijing. Coal consumption declined remarkably by 56. The proportion of coal in primary energy consumption in 2016 was 9. Note electricity g 383 represents primary electricity. Precursor gases including SO2 and NOx from coal combustion also contribute to secondary aerosol formation (Lang et al. The MEIC emission inventory showed that 8. S9, the normalized NO2 concentration is also decreasing, but much slower than that of SO2.

Most notably, the level of SO2 dropped rapidly in 2014 but the level of NO2 decreased by a small proportion. The different trends between SO2 and NO2 indicate that other sources (e.

S9) or atmospheric g 383 have g 383 greater influence on ambient concentration of NO2 than coal g 383. These measures include regulations on spark ignition light vehicles to meet the national fifth phase g 383 and expanded traffic restrictions to certain vehicles, including banning entry of g 383 polluting and non-local vehicles glucophage 1000 mg france the city within the sixth ring road during daytime and the phasing out of 1 million old vehicles (Yang et al.

Yearly peak normalized PM2.



20.06.2019 in 21:20 Yozshushura:
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