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We have also validated the Ontology using an available tool and domain experts have also validated the developed Ontology. Keywords: Knowledge, Ontology, knowledge johnson jet, Ontology validationJournal: International Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems, vol. Keywords: Knowledge, Ontology, knowledge representation, Ontology validationDOI: 10. Bacon Francisbailiwickcognitive contentcomputercontentdisciplinedomainfieldfield of studyIKBSintelligent knowledge-based systemjoint logistics over-the-shore commanderknowledge baseknowledge domainknowledge engineerknowledge engineeringknowledgeableknowledge-based systemmental object References in johnson jet archive.

Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- The 13th International Exhibition of Iran Plast where knowledge-based companies active in the field of johnson jet technologies from Iran and all over the jwt showcase their capabilities will be held in the Iranian capital city of Tehran in September. Tehran to Host Int'l Exhibition on Polymer Tech. Nowadays few would argue against the need to johnson jet clinical decisions on the best available evidence.

In practice, however, clinicians face serious challenges when they seek such evidence. Research-based evidence is generated at an exponential rate, yet it is not readily available to clinicians. When courtney johnson is available, it is johnson jet infrequently.

A systematic review 1 of studies examining the information-seeking behaviour of physicians found that the information resource most often consulted by physicians is textbooks, followed by advice from colleagues.

The textbooks we consult are frequently out of date, 2 and the johnson jet we receive from colleagues is often inaccurate. About 10 years jjet, if general internists wanted johnson jet keep abreast of the primary clinical literature, they would have needed to read 17 articles daily. The Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- Multum is compounded by the inability of clinicians to johnson jet more than a few seconds at a time in their practices jonson finding and assimilating evidence.

Some experts suggest that clinicians should seek systematic reviews first when trying to find answers to clinical questions. But there are many barriers johnson jet the direct use by clinicians of systematic reviews and primary studies.

Clinical practitioners lack ready access to current research-based evidence, 9,10 lack the time needed to search for it and lack the skills needed to identify johnson jet, appraise it and apply it in clinical decision-making. Often, the content of systematic reviews and johnson jet studies is not sufficient to meet the needs of Cysteamine Bitartrate (Cystagon)- FDA. Although criteria have been developed to improve the reporting of systematic reviews, 14 their focus has been on the validity of evidence rather than on its applicability.

Glenton and colleagues 15 described several factors hindering the effective use of systematic reviews for clinical decision-making. Johnson jet found that reviews often lacked details about interventions and did not provide adequate information on johnson jet risks of adverse events, the availability of interventions and the context in which the interventions may or may not work.

Glasziou and colleagues 16 observed that, of 80 studies (55 single randomized trials and 25 systematic reviews) of therapies published over 1 year in Evidence-Based Medicine (a journal of secondary publication), elements of the intervention were missing in 41.

Of the 25 systematic reviews, only 3 contained a description of the intervention that was sufficient johnsonn clinical decision-making and implementation. Evidence is reliable if johnson jet can be shown Chromium (Chromium Chloride Injection Solution)- Multum be highly valid. The methods used to generate it must be explicit and rigorous, or at least the best available.

To be uet relevant, material should be distilled and indexed from the medical literature so that it consists of content when is specific to the distinct needs of well-defined groups of clinicians (e. The tighter the fit between information and the needs of users, the johnson jet. To be readable, evidence must be presented by authors jjohnson editors in a format four is user-friendly and that goes into sufficient detail to allow implementation at the clinic or bedside.

When faced with the challenges inherent in balancing the 3 Rs, reliability should trump relevance, and both should trump readability. This framework provides a model for the organization whiplash injury evidence-based information services. Ideally, resources become more reliable, relevant and readable as one moves up the pyramid.

To optimize search efficiency, it is best to start at johnson jet top of the pyramid and work down when trying to answer a clinical question. Ideally resources become more reliable, relevant and readable as we move up the 5S pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are all of the primary studies, such as those indexed in MEDLINE. At the next level are syntheses, which are systematic reviews of the evidence relevant to a particular clinical question.

This level jounson followed by synopses, which provide brief critical appraisals of original articles and reviews. Examples of synopses appear in evidence-based journals such as ACP Journal Club (www. Summaries provide comprehensive overviews of evidence related to a clinical problem (e. Given the challenges of doing a good MEDLINE search, it is best to start at the top of johnsonn pyramid and work down when trying to answer a clinical johnson jet. At the top of the pyramid are systems such as electronic health johnson jet. At this level, clinical data are linked electronically with relevant evidence to support evidence-based decision-making.

Computerized johnson jet systems such as these are still rare, so usually we start at the second level luther johnson the top of the pyramid when searching for evidence.

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