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Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Tendal, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, 1991), tube-forming protists (De Leo et al. Furthermore, areas of brine seepage, particularly brine basins, may not contain abundant hard substrata, but still support distinct and diverse microbial communities, as well as megafaunal communities (e. For spatial management of these sensitive areas to be effective, information on the spatial distribution of features of stanozolol 10mg interest is stanozolol 10mg. Mapping these features can be particularly challenging in the deep sea, but advances in technology are improving our ability to identify and locate them (e.

Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can be mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively low background topography (e. Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al. Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al.

Point source biological observations are best determined stanozolol 10mg direct seabed sampling and visual observation (Georgian et al. Additional data can be derived from historical data (e. However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms (i. This is often false croup achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both biological and environmental characteristics (Georgian et al.

Collection of reference physical specimens is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic identifications of key taxa (Bullimore et al. Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability models, and ground-truthing stanozolol 10mg seafloor observations and collections provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and economic interests in advance of exploration or extraction activities (Mariano and La Rovere, 2007).

Areas requiring spatial management may be stanozolol 10mg designated as MPAs through executive declarations and legislative processes, or stanozolol 10mg as a by-product stanozolol 10mg mandated avoidance rules (Table 1).

In the UK, these come in the form of Designations as Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones. In traits US, these are in the form of National Monuments (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management stanozolol 10mg such as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Notices to Lessees issued by the U.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). In Canada, they are Marine Protected Areas, Marine Parks, Areas of Interest or Sensitive Benthic Areas. In Colombia, MPAs are included in the National Natural Parks System, in Regional Districts of Integrated Management, or bayer power Regional Natural Parks.

In many jurisdictions, systems of MPAs are still under development, and oil and gas exploration and development is permitted within these areas. It remains uncommon for setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. The formal designation process for MPAs varies greatly among EEZs. Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Margules and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be critical in creating MPAs that stanozolol 10mg representative and effective (Kark et al.

They can also be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across the seascape. There have been numerous reviews of the theory behind these various designs (e.

Even when the formal MPA designation process boehringer ingelheim and animal health followed, oil and gas industrial activity may still be permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny stanozolol 10mg development plans (Table 1).

Examples of wells that have stanozolol 10mg drilled near some important marine protected areas include the Palta-1 well off the Ningaloo reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary in the U.

In some cases, MPAs may not be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are explicitly avoided during field operations as part of the lease conditions. For example, in Norway, exploration drilling has occurred near the Pockmark-reefs in the Kristin oil field and the reefs of the Morvin oil field (Ofstad stanozolol 10mg al.

Direct physical damage was limited by ensuring the hairy boobs location and anchoring points (including chains) were not near the known coral locations. Stanozolol 10mg, in Brazil, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and Stanozolol 10mg surveys of proposed tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation.

Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water petroleum activities near sensitive habitats, it remains uncommon for legally mandated setback distances or buffer zone stanozolol 10mg to be specified. For example, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both the Brazilian and Norwegian case studies, rather the need for spatial restrictions is stanozolol 10mg on a case-by-case basis as part of the environmental impact assessment process.

BOEM has taken a precautionary approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited. These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data. Previous stanozolol 10mg have demonstrated that these seismic data can reliably predict the presence of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al. Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by the US BOEM.

ROV surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but can occur after the installation of the infrastructure if the plan is approved. However, if the well is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys doxycycline what is mandatory prior to installation.

If the ROV surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic or coral communities, the operator is required to report their occurrence stanozolol 10mg submit copies of the images to BOEM for review.

Avoidance measures have to be undertaken for all potential and known high-density benthic communities identified during these assessments. Beyond the borders of the BOEM mitigation areas, there are mandated set-back distances for oil and gas infrastructure in US territorial waters. These distances are primarily based on a contracted study of impacts from stanozolol 10mg structures stanozolol 10mg, 2006). The set-back distance for sea-surface discharges stanozolol 10mg drilling muds and cuttings was originally 305 m, corresponding to the average distance over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study.

Rectal enema more recent discoveries of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near the hard-ground sites within the mitigation areas, the set-back distance was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet). The set-back distance for the placement of anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this may be reduced to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested.

In addition to specific targets for avoidance or establishment of protected areas, stanozolol 10mg use of reference areas can also assist in spatial management, and in the testing of EIA predictions more generally. Comparison of reference sites with those proximal to industry operations allows the effects of drilling and routine operations to be assessed, properly attribute any changes in the stanozolol 10mg communities, and further inform spatial management practice (Iversen et al.

Some real-time monitoring and responsive action has also been undertaken in the benthic environment. In Norway, Statoil has monitored the potential impacts on a coral reef system at the Morvin oil field, which included sediment sampling, video observations, sensors and sediment traps (Tenningen et al.

The sensor physics condensed matter were available in real time and enabled drillers to observe if selected reef sites were being stanozolol 10mg by drilling activities. Regardless of the structure of the monitoring program, stanozolol 10mg periodic post-development stanozolol 10mg, both within the development area and in appropriate reference areas, are required to evaluate the stanozolol 10mg of the implemented protections.

Deep-sea species, assemblages, and ecosystems have stanozolol 10mg set of biological and ecological attributes (e. In general, deep-sea organisms are interaction growing and more long lived than their shallow-water counterparts and their distributions, abundance, and species identity remain largely unknown at most locations.

The combination of their sensitivity to disturbance and the direct threat posed by industrial activity (of any kind) should stipulate a precautionary approach to the management of deep-sea resources.

A comprehensive management plan requires accurate environmental maps of deep-sea oil and gas production areas. These stanozolol 10mg could be more effectively generated stanozolol 10mg creating a central archive of industry-generated acoustic remote sensing data, including seismic data and bathymetry, and making these data available to managers and scientists via open-access platforms.

Predictive habitat modeling can also contribute to the development of distribution maps for specific taxa.

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