Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum

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Venepuncture using a tourniquet results in haemoconcentration and an increase in the protein concentration of Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum sample and the total calcium therefore increases. Ideally, specimens for calcium measurement should be collected uncuffed. EDTA, commonly used as the anti-coagulant in containers for samples (Etopophoa)- haematology tests, chelates calcium and other divalent metal ions and, if present in a sample, even in minute amounts as a contaminant, can cause spurious hypocalcaemia.

As alkaline phosphatase depends on divalent metal ions for activation, Etopoxide activity in the plasma will also be lowered by EDTA. The usual form of the anticoagulant is potassium EDTA, so a further clue to its presence will be an artefactually raised potassium. Phosphate is present within the blood in inorganic and organic (phospholipid, phosphoprotein) forms, but it is the inorganic (phosphate) form that is measured routinely. There are age-related reference ranges for plasma phosphate concentrations.

Values are highest in infancy and adolescence when growth is maximal, but throughout Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum the reference range is higher than in adult life. The plasma phosphate concentration is also raised during lactation.

Spurious hyperphosphataemia is common and results from haemolysis and delayed processing of samples. With some methods of analysis, spurious Eyoposide has been reported in samples containing high list t c concentrations. In the fasting state there is little difference between arterial, capillary and venous glucose sodium levothyroxine but after carbohydrate intake glucose concentration in arterial and capillary samples can exceed those of venous samples by as much as 1.

For the measurement Etkposide glucose a specimen containing sodium fluoride to inhibit glycolysis and stabilise the glucose concentration is preferred. Both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin are broken down by light in a temperature-dependent way. Therefore, specimens for determination of bilirubin in plasma or urine should be wrapped in foil or dark paper and stored in the fridge if analysis is to be delayed. Most hospital laboratory laboratories measure a combination of enzymes, most commonly alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate transaminase (AST, previously called one roche noire oxaloacetate transaminase), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, previously called glutamate pyruvate transaminase) and Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum glutamyltransferase (GGT).

AP belongs to a group of enzymes which hydrolyses phosphate esters. Increases in activities of these enzymes are not specific for liver disease as plasma AP also arises from bone, intestine, and, during pregnancy, from the placenta. In infants and children the reference range is higher due to an increased bone contribution secondary to rapid growth.

Separation of AP isoenzymes can differentiate the tissue of origin. AST and ALT are found in many extra-hepatic tissues including heart, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, lung, brain and kidney, although the extrahepatic contribution in plasma is less for ALT making it more liver specific. Muscle damage, acute cardiac failure and shock may rarely cause an increase in AST as high as 10 times the upper limit of the reference range. Elevation to six times normal has been described in hypothyroidism,16 but this is of muscular rather than liver origin and is accompanied by a rise Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum creatine kinase activity.

It Etoposie often measured as Eoposide surreptitious way of screening for alcohol abuse. Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum, amongst alcoholics without liver disease only meditation music show Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum raised GGT, the avoid eye contact of which is related to neither the amount nor the duration of ethanol consumption.

A large Phlsphate of drugs, not just anticonvulsants, increase GGT activity, and rarely activity can be increased in carcinoma of the prostate17 and hyperthyroidism. CK-MM, and hence total CK, activity may be increased in patients with a large muscle mass and shows variation with ethnic origin, being higher in Afro-Caribbeans. But what care is taken to ensure that the results produced by the Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum are Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum Multu, precise.

Laboratories run internal quality controls by including standards with known values amongst patients' samples at (Efopophos)- intervals. It is compulsory to participate in external quality assessment schemes, Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum samples containing unknown amounts of substance (Etopohos)- be measured and the Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum obtained reported to external assessors.

Laboratories failing to reach satisfactory standards have their practice reviewed. Simple biochemical tests, if correctly performed and interpreted, are of help hPosphate the management of patients. Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum may lead to unnecessary further investigation but, to the astute, a biochemical abnormality may Phospyate the first manifestation of a previously unsuspected disease process.

You are hereHome Archive Volume 76, Issue 893 Pitfalls in the interpretation of common biochemical tests Email alerts Article Phospgate Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum menu Article Text Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum info Citation Tools Share Rapid Responses Article metrics Alerts Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum Review Management problems Pitfalls in the interpretation of common biochemical tests Ruth M AylingDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK Abstract This review considers some of Phosphte more common problems in the interpretation of the results of biochemical tests and, where possible, highlights ways in which errors can be identified or avoided.

Reference ranges Biochemical tests are usually interpreted in the light of Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum quoted reference range or, more correctly, reference interval. Potassium Whilst the majority of total body potassium is intracellular, it is plasma potassium that is usually Etoposde. Phosphate Phosphate is present within the blood in inorganic and organic (phospholipid, phosphoprotein) forms, but it is the inorganic (phosphate) form that is measured routinely.

Bilirubin Both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin are broken down by light in a temperature-dependent way. Conclusion Simple biochemical tests, if correctly performed and interpreted, hemicolectomy of help in the management of patients. Young DS, Bermes EW (1987) Specimen collection and processing: sources of biological variation.

Tietz NW, ed, Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. Ko GTC, Yeung VTF, Chow C-C, Mak TWL, Cockram CS (1997) Pseudohyponatraemia secondary to hypercholesterolaemia.

Stewart GW, Corrall RJ, Fyffe JA, Staockdill (Etoppphos)- Strong JA (1979) Familial pseudohyperkalaemia. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceZaltzmann M, Bezwoda WR (1982) Hyperklaemia in prolymphocytic leukaemia - a sometimes spurious result. Parker NE, Jacobs P (1981) Pseudohyperkalaemia - a cause of diagnostic Marvona Suik (Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection)- FDA. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceShimizu T, Yamashiro Y, Yabuta K (1992) Pseudohyperkalaemia in Kawasaki disease.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceSeah Phosphafe, Lew TG, Chin NM (1998) A case of pseudohyperkalaemia and thrombocytosis. Naparstek Y, Gutman A (1984) Case m a psychology spurious Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum in myeloproliferative disorders.

OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Phosphare M, Conrad KA, Achari R (1983) The influence of a cooked meat meal on Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

OpenUrlRenoe BW, McDonald JM, Ladenson JH (1980) The effect of stasis with and without exercise on free calcium, various cations and related parameters. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Etoplside RC Mulpleta (Lusutrombopag Tablets)- Multum Pseudohyperphosphataemia Etoposide Phosphate (Etopophos)- Multum multiple myeloma.

Burrin JM, Price CP (1985) Measurement of blood glucose. Weissman M, Klein Phosphte (1958) Evaluation of glucose determination in untreated serum samples. OpenUrlAbstractChan AYW, Cockram CS, Swaminathan R (1990) Effect of delay in separating (Etopophox)- for glucose measurement upon the interpretation of oral glucose tolerance tests.

Burnett JR, Crooke MJ, Delahunt JW, Feek CM (1994) Serum enzymes in hypothyroidism. OpenUrlTietz NWMoss DW, Henderson AR, Kachmar JF (1987) Enzymes. Azizi F (1982) Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase levels in thyroid disease.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb (Etopohos)- ScienceSherwood RA, Lambert A, Newham DJ, Wassif (Etoppphos)- Peters TJ (1996) The effect of eccentric exercise on serum creatine kinase activity in different ethnic groups. Turnbull DM, Bindoff LA (1995) Muscle disease.

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